What is a VPN? The Ultimate Beginner’s Guide

VPN on router

As our everyday lives get more and more intertwined with the internet, we are spending more time online.

As inconceivable as it would have seemed just 20 years ago, nowadays, we can do pretty much everything online, from shopping and banking, buying houses and cars, socialising, entertainment, work, and everything in between.

As technology advances, the term “VPN” is often mentioned, but a lot of people are still probably wondering, what is a VPN?

In this guide, we’re going to teach you all about VPNs so you know exactly what one is and ultimately help you make the decision about whether you really need a Virtual Private Network.

So, here we go…

What is a VPN?

VPN stands for Virtual Private Network, and whilst that sounds complicated, it is actually a pretty straightforward tool.

When you connect to the internet, your computer or mobile device sends online traffic through your internet connection to the websites and services you are using.

It is while this data is travelling between the two locations that it is most vulnerable to hackers and surveillance operatives. This is where a Virtual Private Network (VPN) can step in and protect your data.

A VPN is really just a private ‘server’.

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Server: A name given to a powerful computer that usually automates processes.

Most VPNs operate numerous servers around the world, and when you choose a server from their network, the VPN will establish an encrypted connection between your device (also known as the VPN client) and that server.

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Encryption: To mix up all of your data and make it unreadable.

Once your data passes down that secure VPN connection and reaches that remote server, it is then sent on to the site you are trying to connect with as normal.

Because your data is encrypted when travelling between your device and the server, it is impossible for hackers, surveillance organisations, or your ISP to read it or see what you are doing online and which websites you are visiting.

How a VPN works

All that is visible to outsiders who might be trying to intercept and read your data is the fact that internet traffic is moving between your device and the web server run by your VPN. Because of the secure internet connection provided by your VPN, they cannot see the contents of that data or where it is eventually going.

Your online data is, therefore, both secure and private whilst travelling through an internet connection that is protected by your Virtual Private Network. It is as simple as that.

How a VPN gives you a new IP Address

Once your information leaves the VPN server, it is not encrypted anymore. But by that point, it is also pretty much impossible to trace it back to you and your internet connection. It can only be traced back to the VPN server.

This is because the VPN server stamps that information with its own IP Address (a code a bit like an online identity tag) rather than the real IP Address associated with your own internet connection. This new IP Address means that the information can be traced back to the VPN server but not beyond.

In other words, using a VPN service and getting a new IP Address allows you to be semi-anonymous but not completely anonymous online. And because VPN services operate server networks located all over the world, if you use a VPN, it can also make it appear as if you are in a different country, too, if you so wish, by getting different IP Addresses whenever you want.

This allows you to use VPN connections to access geo-restricted content and access blocked websites, no matter where you are, and also get around any online censorship you may face in your home country. With the right VPN and IP Address, you can watch US Netflix in Nepal and access BBC News in Beijing.

How a VPN can protect your IP address and privacy

A Virtual Private Network protects you and your IP address by creating a secure data tunnel that connects your device with a server located somewhere else. This encrypted tunnel leads to VPN servers that could be five miles down the road or halfway around the world.

When you use a Virtual Private Network, it prevents your real IP address from being shown and makes it appear as if you are connecting to the internet from wherever the VPN server is located rather than your home or wherever you are actually logging on from.

Virtual Private Networks also provide you with a whole host of VPN IP addresses to use.

The advantage of this VPN technology is that it can enable you to hide your true location (and IP Address) from the websites you visit and also your internet service provider, which in many countries is mandated to keep records of what you get up to online.

Using a reputable VPN provider also lets you access apps and websites that are blocked in your country but not in others, although this is dependent on what VPN server/IP address you connect to.

When your online activity passes down that encrypted virtual tunnel, it is scrambled using something called encryption.

Encryption encodes and jumbles up all your internet traffic into unreadable content, and it cannot be unscrambled until it reaches the secure VPN server at the other end of the secure encrypted connection.

Being able to change your IP address is extremely useful and can bring you so many benefits. As well as protecting all your web traffic, it also helps you to bypass censorship and unblock geo-restricted content like your favourite streaming service or that TV show from the States you love.

Most secure VPN services use an encryption standard of ‘256 bit‘ to secure your network traffic. When a VPN encrypts to this standard, it works at the same level used by Governments and militaries and ensures a totally secure internet connection.

Why does this matter?

Without the secure connection provided by encryption, it is relatively easy for hackers to access your internet data to harvest your personal information or simply spy on what you are doing online.

When you use a VPN, the encrypted tunnel it provides makes this impossible because the encryption used by most VPNs is so strong that it is impossible for hackers to crack, so your privacy is ensured.

It also stops your Internet Service Provider (ISP) from being able to log everything you do when online. In countries like the UK, they are obliged to do this by law.

But because a VPN encrypts all your data, your ISP cannot see any of it until it leaves the VPN server, and by then, they can only track it back as far as the VPN server and the IP addresses associated with that VPN.

This means when you use a VPN app, they have no way of seeing and logging what websites you are visiting or what you are doing on them. By using a VPN that we have tested and recommended, you can have peace of mind that your privacy is kept safe in your hands.

How to choose a VPN

To be sure you are choosing the right Virtual Private Network providers, there are a few key questions you need to ask yourself about them:

If a VPN is worth using, it will be able to guarantee your online privacy. After all, the main purpose of using a VPN is to ensure your privacy.

That means it will have a no-logs policy that guarantees it doesn’t keep a record of what its VPN users do online, such as what websites you visit and other browsing activity.

The best VPN providers will have had their no-user logs claims verified in an independent third-party audit, meaning you can be absolutely certain that a VPN protects your online privacy. Check our our reviews to find the best.

If you are going to do anything more than browse the web and read a few emails, you will be running a lot of data through your VPN server.

This means your VPN solutions cannot have any bandwidth limitations or data caps.

The good news is that most premium VPNs don’t, but quite a few free VPNs still do, so check carefully before you sign up.

Most premium VPN clients these days will use either OpenVPN or the new WireGuard VPN protocol by default.

The one exception to this rule could be on iOS VPN apps, so keep an eye out for these.

Many VPNs will allow users to manually switch protocols in their VPN client settings so it is worth checking these out before you start using your VPN to ensure your VPN connection is using the most secure protocol available.

Most people use between 3-5 devices to go online regularly, and you should really protect all of them with a VPN app.

This means you need to make sure your VPN provider offers two things.

Firstly, make sure it allows enough simultaneous connections for you to use all of your devices at the same time. Most VPN services these days will offer a minimum of 5 simultaneous connections, with some even going so far as to offer unlimited simultaneous connections.

Secondly, you need to make sure your chosen VPN provider offers VPN client software for all the devices you use.

A VPN provider will typically offer a VPN app for popular desktop and mobile systems, meaning you can use your VPN on multiple devices at the same time. But we know people get online using all sorts of devices these days.

Make sure your provider offers the VPN software you need to gain access to their server network on all the devices you use. Our VPN tests and reviews will reveal all.

Think about which countries you need to be able to access VPN network servers for.

There might only be one country, but you might need more. Do you want to stream content from anywhere abroad, for example? Check that the provider you like offers a remote VPN server location in all of these countries.

The more VPN server locations they have where you need them, the better their service will be for your needs and the easier it will be to access blocked websites you want to view.

If you want remote server access to content from another region (such as online streaming services), then a VPN company with a large network of VPN web server locations in the places you use will be your best bet.

If you are on a tight budget, you might be tempted to opt for a free VPN. But be aware that you will pay in other ways for these services.

Free VPNs could pose a security threat to you, inject malware or adware onto your devices or worse. They are likely to harvest and sell your data, may well have service limitations that make them usable for all but the most basic things and some may even not offer an encrypted VPN tunnel or a remote server option at all.

A premium VPN will only cost you a few pounds or dollars a month which is cheap when your privacy is at stake, plus it will deliver a high-quality service that is also secure and private.

Uses of VPN

VPN usage can be about a lot more than just keeping your data private and secure online.

Other popular things people use a VPN for include:

Access business networks when travelling

If you are travelling overseas for work and need to be able to remote access your business network securely, using a remote access VPN can help.

Because it encrypts all of your data and hides your real location, giving you a new IP address, your encrypted remote access VPN connection can allow you to access all the online resources you need safely and securely from anywhere in the world while maintaining a secure connection.

A lot of companies will provide staff with a corporate VPN for this, but if yours doesn’t, a public VPN should work just as well and keep your business data secure on that business trip to Hawaii.

Access home networks when travelling

You can also use a VPN to remotely access your home or local network securely.

By using a remote access VPN you can access your Windows Remote Desktop via a secure tunnel, share files on the local network, and even play games online like World of Warcraft just as if you were still at home, all the while knowing that your VPN’s internet protocol security is keeping your network safe and secure.

Use public Wi-Fi securely

When you use public internet Wi-Fi networks, your online data and personal information are easily accessible by almost anyone nearby.

An unsecured connection to a public internet Wi-Fi network is a hacker’s favourite target as it is anything but a private network. Don’t make the mistake of sacrificing your data and privacy for a free public Wi-Fi network connection.

That doesn’t mean you shouldn’t use them at all. Just be sure to connect to a VPN. This will ensure that all your data is protected by the VPN tunnel, your browsing history remains private, and your VPN hides everything you are doing online from any prying eyes.

So if you use a public Wi-Fi network in your local coffee shop, then be sure to use a VPN service provider to ensure the privacy of your web activity and sensitive data as well as boost your anonymity online.

Hide your internet activity from your ISP

Internet Service providers (ISPs) in the UK and many other countries are legally required to keep a log of all their user’s internet activity.

In the UK, they must keep this information for 12 months alongside information about your online identity. But if you connect to a VPN service, your Internet Service Provider will be unable to see anything other than the fact that you have a VPN connection.

As your data is sent through an encrypted tunnel, no internet provider is able to keep any meaningful records of what you are doing online.

For example, if you have a computer that you use the internet on, then the use of a VPN protects your online privacy. Not even your Internet Service Provider will be able to see your internet traffic or your browsing history. They won’t even know what IP Address you are using for online activity.

This is also useful for connecting to a VPN in countries with strict internet censorship, ensuring your security and privacy are kept intact, keeping all your internet data private while you can bypass censorship online.

You may even use a local IP address so that you can access local area network content without being monitored on that local network by the government’s watchful eyes.

Access Geo-Blocked Websites

Lots of websites restrict access to users outside a certain geographic location.

This stops people outside that region from visiting them.

The most common example is American Netflix, which offers far more content than its other national streaming services but is blocked outside the USA.

With a VPN, you can connect to a server inside that region and fool these sites into thinking you should be allowed access. VPN servers operate all over the world, so just connect to a US server, and you can watch US Netflix from anywhere in the world.

Just make sure your VPN app has the server locations you need, and you can unblock internet services from just about anywhere.

VPN Protocols

There are quite a few VPN tunnelling protocols, and the number is growing all the time. If you are not technically minded, choosing the right VPN protocols can be very difficult or confusing.

To help, here is a brief summary of the most common VPN tunneling protocol options:

OpenVPN is the default protocol still used by most VPNs at the moment.

It is an open-source and freely available protocol that can run on a single UDP or TCP port, making it extremely flexible.

OpenVPN can be used on most devices and operating systems and has, for a long time, offered the best combination of speed, usability, and security.

If you’re unsure of which protocol to be using, OpenVPN is still usually the best bet.

WireGuard is a newish VPN protocol that many have predicted will power the next generation of VPNs. It has already been picked up by most of the big providers.

It is a slimline protocol that still offers the best possible security protection while maximising potential speeds. Using WireGuard guarantees secure and fast VPN connections to help ensure your VPN works anytime and anywhere.

A growing number of VPNs are offering WireGuard now, with some even making it the default protocol. That looks to be the way forward.

IKEv2 is a VPN protocol that is based on IPSec. Its design makes it ideal for mobile devices as it copes well when devices switch between Wi-Fi and mobile data networks regularly.

This tends to be the protocol many VPNs use by default in their iOS VPN apps.

PPTP is a vintage tunneling protocol and is simple to set up on most Operating Systems. But its security has been questioned repeatedly in recent years, it is not recommended for site to site VPN tunnels, and it is best avoided these days.

SSTP stands for Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol. It is another vintage protocol that was intended only for remote client access, it generally does not support site to site VPN tunnels. It is another protocol best avoided these days.

L2TP over IPsec is more secure and comes with more features than PPTP.

L2TP/IPec actually implements two protocols together. The L2TP protocol creates the tunnel and IPsec provides the secure channel. It is a decent enough protocol but there are better and more modern tunneling protocols available these days.

What to consider when choosing a VPN

Choosing a VPN is hard because there are so many on the market.

On our site, you can read our expert reviews of all the top VPNs on the market right now and see the pros and cons of each. Doing research is crucial to making the right choice for you, and we have all the information VPN users need on this site.

We strongly advise you not to use free VPN connections.

There are numerous problems with free providers, including:

  • Weak security: Most free VPNs offer lax security and use weaker VPN protocols like PPTP. Some have been found to not actually encrypt your data at all, which leaves your online activity on show for all to see.
  • Fewer servers: Free VPNs tend to have a smaller network of servers. When these get busy, connection speeds for everyone slow to a crawl making your internet almost unusable.
  • Annoying ads: A lot of free VPNs will rely on advertising to make money and so you will find yourself inundated with adverts and pop-ups. Often these are injected into your browser and other apps too.
  • Download limits: A lot of free VPNs limit the amount of data you can use each month. For most internet users, this limit will be well below what you actually use.
  • Slow speeds \ no encryption: Too often VPN technology on free providers is just not up to the job. Some don’t bother to encrypt connections at all, while others have painfully slow speeds.

The last thing you want is to be wondering, “will my VPN work?” every time you load up your VPN. With a free VPN, the likely answer to the question of will my VPN work is no!

Frequently Asked Questions

People often ask whether using a Virtual Private Network is legal.

There is a perception that because they offer privacy and security that can be useful for hackers and online criminals, VPNs must be illegal too.

The opposite is true. A remote access VPN is a tool that protects your online freedom and security, something that is actively encouraged in most countries.

Using a VPN is completely legal in much of the world. But conducting illegal activity such as hacking, sharing illegal content, or pirating movies and music is not.

A secure connection is a must whenever you connect to the internet.

UK Police Facebook posting about VPNThe UK’s Police forces actually recommend VPN use.

There are a few countries where VPNs are illegal or disallowed.

These tend to be countries like China, Iran, and Russia which are controlled by authoritarian regimes that want to know what all the people they control are doing online and keep records of their VPN access, browsing history, and online communication.

These tend to be the places you need a VPN connection most due to the heavy censorship of internet access. But if you do live in a country like this, it is advisable to check the local law and make sure you are comfortable before signing up with a VPN provider.

You probably use several devices to go online; a laptop, a smartphone, a tablet, a smart TV, and a smart speaker.

All of these devices are vulnerable, and your internet traffic on all of them should really be protected by a VPN connection. That’s why users should prioritise two things that are often overlooked when deciding what VPN to use.

Make sure the VPN you are using works on all of the devices you access the internet with.

Ideally, they will have dedicated VPN apps, but if not, look on their website for a manual installation guide. Setting up a VPN is usually easy.

Also, be sure you can use all of your devices online at the same time. Most VPN providers offer multiple concurrent connections, but while some allow as many as 10 or 12, other VPN providers can be as low as 3. Make sure your VPN has enough to suit your needs.

Top Tip

Services like IPVanish and Surfshark offer an unlimited number, while others like ExpressVPN just eight.

By rerouting your online traffic through a remote access VPN connection, you are making the journey your data is taking longer, and this can impact on speeds. The process of encrypting your data also makes it a little slower.

How noticeable this impact will be depends on which VPN provider you opt for and which of the VPN server options you connect to.

Download Speed

Choosing a VPN server closer to your actual connection will generally make the connection faster, but with a top-of-the-range VPN provider like ExpressVPN or NordVPN, the performance should be unaffected regardless of which server you choose.

No one likes pop-up ads. They are annoying, slow down your internet, and can be dangerous too as hackers often use them to deliver malware to your device.

An ad-blocker can keep these types of ads off your device. A lot of VPNs will come bundled together with an ad-blocker tool.

Plenty of users appreciate this feature, so check to see if your chosen VPN offers one.

But do remember, you can usually download better ad-blockers from other sources too, so we wouldn’t advise you to make this a deal-breaker.

Any user who is serious about their online privacy should be on the lookout for a provider that offers a kill switch feature as standard.

A kill switch is a feature that cuts your internet connection if your VPN link drops out. When this happens, your device will usually revert back to your normal IP address, which would reveal this information to anyone watching.

Some kill switches just cut everything until your VPN connection drops out. Others can be tailored to just cut certain apps and leave other less sensitive content connected.

All VPNs drop out occasionally, so if privacy is important, make sure your VPN has a kill switch and that it is set up properly.

Most premium VPN providers will offer a no user logs guarantee to all users. A lot of free VPN services make no such promise.

A no user logs guarantee means they promise not to keep any records of what you do online. Usually, this will also include details like your original IP address.

This is important because if your VPN service does hold this information, it is possible that it could end up revealing it to hackers or government agencies.

Some no user logs guarantees are a lot more comprehensive than others which is why it is important to find out more about your chosen VPN service before signing up.

The best will have run an independent audit to prove their no user logs claim stands up to scrutiny. However, some VPN services may still harvest information while claiming to anonymise it.

Make sure your privacy is your number one priority, and only use VPN providers with a proven no-logging policy.

To be on the safe side, our advice for this would always be yes.

If you want to be sure your online activity is secure and private, using a VPN is the best guarantee.

But if that doesn’t seem practical, there are times when you could get away without one. For example, more and more sites these days are using the HTTPS protocol (the letters at the start of a web address).

This means traffic to and from the site is automatically encrypted. But that doesn’t stop your ISP/network provider from seeing what websites you’re visiting.

If you have some apps you would like to run through your VPN and others you don’t, a good solution is to choose a VPN provider that offers a split tunneling feature that lets you identify apps to connect directly and others to run through your VPN connection.

But if you are using public internet Wi-Fi hotspots, imputing personal information, or using sites that require you to evade their inbuilt geo-restriction or government censorship efforts, a secure SSL VPN is vital.

And the practical reality is that it is much easier just to find a reliable, fast, and secure VPN than to leave it on rather than switch it on and off when you see fit.

If you’re a little forgetful or don’t want the hassle of enabling and disabling an app all the time, then considering a VPN router like the Invizbox 2, which secures every device connected to your internet connection, may be the way to go.

Better to be safe than sorry!

In the UK alone, we spent an estimated £250 billion online in 2021. Eight out of ten people in the UK now use online banking as of 2018. At the same time, around 85% of British internet users make use of social media.

With the advent of new technologies, such as the Internet of Things (IoT), which looks likely to connect pretty much every device we use in our homes, this tidal wave shows no sign of letting up.

But at the same time, the threats posed to us by the internet also continue to grow. Hackers are growing increasingly adept at compromising our data, with ransomware the latest technique to hit the headlines.

At the same time, Governments, especially the British one, are taking advantage of security challenges to intrude ever further into the online activities of innocent citizens.

The highly intrusive Investigatory Powers Act is already law and requires ISPs to log your internet data for at least a year. The Online Safety Bill promises to make matters even worse.

It should, therefore, be little wonder that a growing number of people are concerned about internet security and online privacy.

A couple of years ago, Boris Johnson advised Russian citizens that “All you need is a VPN connection to access independent information from anywhere in the world.” The truth is that your online security and privacy demands that you use one in the UK too.

Many will have seen mention of VPNs as a popular tool to counter these two big online threats. But with plenty of content already online, it can be hard to find a simple guide to what a VPN, or Virtual Private Network, actually is.

We hope you’ve found this guide useful and have a better understanding of how using a VPN service can increase your online security and answer your “What is a VPN?” question.


There is a lot to digest in this article, so let’s recap a few of the key points:

  • VPN stands for Virtual Private Network
  • A VPN is an online secure and privacy tool.
  • VPNs are simple to use, but there are plenty of features for more advanced users to play with.
  • VPNs are vital for keeping your online data private and ensuring everything you do online is encrypted.
  • VPNs can be used to unblock geo-restricted and censored content around the world.
  • To use a Virtual Private Network safe ly, you should use features like a kill switch.
  • You can connect to a remote VPN server located just about anywhere in the world.
  • Premium VPNs cost just a few pounds a month.
  • Free VPNs come with a myriad of problems and are best avoided.

The main takeaway from this guide entitled What is a VPN should be that, despite all the jargon that can surround VPNs, they are actually very simple to download and install.

Plus, no matter how computer-savvy you are, it is well worth getting one to keep yourself secure when going online and to keep your data private and safe. Now you know the answer to the question, what is a VPN, you have no excuse not to.

Author: David Spencer

Cyber-security & Technology Reporter, David, monitors everything going on in the privacy world. Fighting for a less restricted internet as a member of the VPNCompare team for over 7 years.

Away from writing, he enjoys reading and politics. He is currently learning Mandarin too... slowly.

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